# The Area Under the Curve and Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve

In the realm of machine learning, it is not enough to only build an ML model; we also need to test it to see whether it is performing as intended. This means that after developing a machine learning model, we must evaluate and confirm whether or not it is good or bad, and in these situations, we use a wide range of Evaluation Metrics. One way to display a classification model’s performance is via an evaluation metric like the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (AUC ROC Curve). When evaluating the efficacy of a classification model, it is common practise to calculate the area under the curve. Here, we’ll go further into the AUC-ROC curve and discuss its parts in more detail.

We suggest reading up on the Confusion matrix before continuing with this topic since the AUC-ROC uses some of the same vocabulary.

## How do you interpret the AUC-ROC Curve?

The area under the curve of the ROC statistic may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a classification model over a range of cutoff values. Let’s start at the beginning and learn about the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.

## The area under the ROC Curve.

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are probability graphs used to illustrate a classification model’s efficacy at various threshold levels.

In order to efficiently calculate the values at any threshold level, we need to use a method known as the area under the curve (AUC).

## What is the meaning of AUC, or Area Under the ROC Curve?

The “Area Under the ROC curve” is more often known as “AUC.” As its name implies, AUC computes the region under the whole ROC curve stretching from (0,0) to (1,1), as seen in the following illustration.

## The Area Under the Curve and Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve

The area under the curve (AUC) provides an aggregate statistic for the performance of the binary classifier over many thresholds, as measured by the ROC curve. The area under the curve (AUC) may range from 0 to 1, indicating that a good model will have an AUC near to 1, demonstrating a sufficient degree of separability.

## The Role of the AUC-ROC Formula

### AUC is favoured due to the following conditions:

Area under the curve (AUC) is used to rank the accuracy of the predictions rather than their absolute values. Therefore, AUC may be said to be independent of scale.

The model’s prediction accuracy is measured independently of the classification threshold used in the analysis. This shows that AUC can be calculated regardless of the threshold used for classifying data.

## Calibration of the probability output is an instance when the AUC statistic is not advised.

When there is a substantial difference between the cost of false negatives and the cost of false positives, or when it is impossible to reduce just one kind of classification error, the AUC is not a meaningful indication.

## How can we apply the AUC-ROC curve to the multi-class model?

Despite its exclusive use for binary classification problems, the AUC-ROC curve may be used to the solution of multiclass classification problems. The One vs ALL method enables us to generate an infinite number of AUC curves for an infinite number of classes, making it ideal for scenarios involving more than two groups.