If talking about the principle of generating electricity at present, it can be divided into 3 principles, each of which is different, which can be divided as follows:
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Working Principle of Dynamo or Generator
electrification in a generator There is a simple principle as follows: when the moving coil cuts the magnetic field. There will be an electric current in the coil. This principle is based on Faraday’s law, which simply states that if the magnetic field passing through a coil changes, it induces an electric current in the coil.
The working principle of a simple battery
Generation of electricity in an electrochemical cell It has a simple principle: when two metal plates are immersed in an electrolyte solution, (Solutions that conduct electricity, the two metals have different potentials. When an electric wire is connected between the two metal plates, there will be an electric current flowing between the two metal plates.
working principle of solar cell บริษัทติดตั้งโซล่าเซลล์
solar cell structure It consists of two types of semiconductors, N type semiconductor and P type semiconductor.
– N-type semiconductor refers to a semiconductor with more free electrons than usual. (Excess electrons) thus being a substance with an electrical charge of –
– P-type semiconductors are semiconductors with fewer free electrons than usual. (lacking electrons) so it is a substance with a + electric charge
When sunlight strikes the solar cell, negative and positive electric charge carriers are created. The PN junctions create an electric field within the cell. As a result, a voltage is generated at both electrodes. When a solar cell is connected to an electrical device such as a light bulb, motor, etc., it will light the bulb. or the motor can be rotated
One solar cell has a voltage of about 0.5 volts. If you want to have a lot of voltage, it can be done by bringing the cells in series.
Electricity in a solar cell The principle is simple: in a solar cell, there are two types of semiconductors: N-type semiconductor and P-type semiconductor, while the electrons and holes in both semiconductors are not exposed to light. own place
When sunlight strikes the solar cell Photons of sunlight transfer energy to electrons in semiconductors. and gives the electron enough energy to move away from the atom to become electrons that can move freely These electrons move to the hole position. This movement of free electrons causes an electric current to flow in the solar cell.
The solar cell was first invented in 1954 (1954 by Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson) as a device for converting light energy into electrical energy By introducing semiconductors such as silicon, which are the cheapest and most abundant on Earth. Brought through a scientific process to produce a pure sheet. and as soon as the light falls on the cell plate A ray of light with energy-containing particles called photons transfers energy to electrons in a semiconductor. until it has enough energy to jump out of Atom’s gravitational pull and move freely. It will generate direct current.
solar power plant using solar cells
The solar cell is the only invention that can directly convert solar energy into electrical energy after the human invention of the solar cell. Solar cells have been used in many applications, but the most important task of installing solar cells is probably the task of generating electricity for the space station. or work that requires generating electricity for satellites And when the oil is gone from the world, solar cells will have to work even harder, that is, they may have to produce enough electricity to meet human needs.
Photovoltaic power plants convert solar energy directly into electrical energy. It is commonly used in every country. including Thailand These types of power plants are generally subsidized by the government. Due to their high cost compared to other types of power plants, installing solar cells has been continuously developed, making them more and more efficient and cheaper. Solar powered cells would be much cheaper. And with high efficiency that it can be used as the main energy source in the future. The main advantage of solar power plants is that they are waste-free or pollution-free.
Thailand’s solar energy potential
Will the solar potential of an area be high or low? depending on the amount of solar radiation that hits that area An area that receives a lot of solar radiation has a high potential for using solar energy.
From the solar energy potential map of Thailand (1999) by the Department of Energy Development and Promotion. and the Faculty of Science Silpakorn University It was found that the intensity distribution of Solar radiation in different areas for each month of the country. It is influenced by the northeast monsoon wind. and southwest monsoon winds And most of the country receives maximum solar radiation between April and May, with values in the range of 20 to 24 MJ/square meter-day. When considering the annual average daily solar energy potential map, It was found that the area receiving the highest solar radiation on average throughout the year was in the Northeast. by covering some of Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Roi Et, Yasothon, Ubon Ratchathani and Udon Thani and parts of the central region in Suphan Buri, Chainat, Ayutthaya and Lop Buri, receiving average annual solar radiation of 19 to 20 mega Jules/square meter-day. That area accounted for 14.3%. of the total area of the country In addition, it was found that 50.2% of the total area receives annual average solar radiation in the range of 18 – 19 MJ/square meter-day.
From the calculation of total daily solar radiation on average per year across the country, it was found that it was 18.2 mega Jules/square meter-day. From this result, it shows that Thailand has a relatively high solar energy potential.